Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Online Poker and Virtual Sports Betting News

Push For California Online Poker In 2017 May Be Doomed Before It Even Begins


Prospects of passage in 2017 looking dim

Amaya/PokerStars, along with 888 and Caesars Entertainment, partners with the Rincon Band of Luiseño Indians, and Pala Interactive, an enterprise of the Pala Band of Mission Indians, will continue to lobby legislators, aware they each stand a chance of grabbing a major share of an online poker industry.

A number of tribes – Rincon, Pala, United Auburn and the Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation, to name a few – may also be anxious to get into the online poker business, but are aware of the futility of lobbying the issue without tribal consensus.

“We’re not really going to try and carry any water on the issue unless the other tribal coalitions – the Morongo group and the Pechanga group – move something forward in some kind of compromise,” Stallings said.

Read more at link above


Virtual Sports Betting In Nevada Will Soon Be A Reality


Leap Gaming in California

Inspired isn’t the only virtual sports provider trying to get a foot in the door in the US market.
Earlier this year, the Pala Band of Mission Indians in California partnered with Leap Gaming to add virtual sports to its social casino. Perhaps, further down the road, virtual sports will be added its real-money online gambling products, including the tribe’s NJ online casino.

“I’m very excited about this new collaboration with Leap Gaming which will allow us to be one of the first platforms to launch virtual sports as a social gaming product in North America,” said Pala Interactive’s Chief Social Gaming Officer Brett Calapp in a press release.

Calapp went on to hint about virtual sports expanding to other platforms.

“Leap’s virtual sports products are truly state of the art and provide a visually stunning player experience across all platforms,” he said. “We look forward to start offering this premium content to our customers.”

Read the full article at the link above.

Remember, the Executive Committee owns Pala Interactive, not the tribe.  However, they used tribal money to launch it.

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Pala Election Results

Press reporting on Pala Elections.

Fall brook & Bonsall Village NewsPala Band of Mission Indians announces tribal election results

Here is a quote:

Chairman Smith has served as tribal chairman since first being elected in 1990. Theresa Nieto has served on the Tribal Council since 2001 and Sheila Lopez was re-elected to a third term as councilmember at-large, a position she has held since 2012.

“I am extremely proud to continue to serve the tribe as chairman,” said Robert Smith. “We had a great election turnout and the strong support for our current Tribal Council members illustrates confidence in the progress we have made culturally, socially and economically. The Tribal Council and I look forward to continuing this progress and achieving even more in the years to come.”

You can read the full article at the link above.

Friday, November 18, 2016

Pala Buys Part of Gregory Canyon

The San Diego Union Tribune reported yesterday that the Pala Band purchased part of Gregory Canyon effectively ending the 25 year fight over the landfill.  Purchase Price:  $13 million.  There will probably be no Christmas bonus this year for Pala members but hey, you got some sacred land back.

You can read the article at the link below.  Shasta Gaughen said:

"“The deal includes all of Gregory Mountain — we already owned the eastern side —  and all of Gregory Canyon, so that makes it impossible for there to be any sort of landfill development there,” said Shasta Gaughen, the tribe’s environmental director and historic preservation officer. “This outcome, with the tribe owning one of the most sacred sites we have — I didn't’ see it ending like this and I couldn’t be happier.”

Read the full article here:

Gregory Canyon Landfill project dead as Pala tribe buys part of land

Friday, November 11, 2016

Pala Interactive In The News

Pala Interactive has launched a free to play casino app that allows Pala Privileges rewards players to win real prizes at Pala Casino.

Pala Interactive launches social casino app for land-based venue


The free-play site has been developed using Pala Interactive's proprietary social gaming software and systems, and is integrated with the casino's Pala Privileges rewards programme.

This allows Pala Privileges reward card holders to win real-world prizes such as free casino play, spa services, food and drink, and accommodation.

"We are really excited about the launch of this new gaming product," Pala chief executive Bill Bembenek commented. “We believe the games will provide another high-quality gaming experience for our guests especially those who are not able to visit our resort.

read the full article at the link above.

Monday, November 7, 2016

Pala Can Now Set Its Own Water Standards

Article in the Fallbrook & Bonsall Village News

EPA gives Pala Band of Mission Indians authority to govern tribal waters

Here is an excerpt:

The Pala Tribe can now develop water quality standards for their waters within the Tribe’s Reservation, similar to the process used by states under Sections 303 and 401 of the Clean Water Act. After the Tribe develops and EPA approves the standards, the Pala Tribe will administer surface water quality standards, building upon existing successful environmental programs run by the Pala Environmental Department.

You can read full article at link above.

Saturday, October 15, 2016

Some Local Politics

originalpechanga.com has posted the following on Escondido Patch:

In District 75: Waldron vs. Masiel WALDRON is the CLEAR CHOICE

There is too much corruption in challenger Andrew Masiel's history to risk giving him Power and Prestige

By Original Pechanga (Open Post) - October 14, 2016 12:46 pm ET

In District 75:  Waldron vs. Masiel WALDRON is the CLEAR CHOICE
Has he and the Democrats NO SHAME?

The man who led the fight to disenroll HUNDREDS of Native Americans descended from Manuela Miranda and Paulina Hunter from his own tribe, leaving them outcasts on their own reservation. He didn't have the decency to look out for his own people, recuse himself from sitting in judgement of his mother and aunt's decisions, or even show up on time to our appeals hearings, now wants OUR support and votes for congress against Marie Waldron?


Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Leap Partners with Pala for Free To Play Virtual Online Sports

News via .gamingintelligence.com

Leap to launch first US free-to-play virtual sports offering with Pala

Virtual sports specialist Leap Gaming is to launch a social variant of its core product in the US for Pala Interactive, the iGaming arm of the Pala Band of Mission Indians.

Last year it appointed Brett Calapp, founder of social gaming platform provider RocketFrog, as its chief social officer.

“I’m very excited about this new collaboration with Leap Gaming which will allow us to be one of the first platforms to launch virtual sports as a social gaming product in North America,” Calapp said of the new partnership.

“Leap’s virtual sports products are truly state of the art and provide a visually stunning player experience across all platforms. We look forward to start offering this premium content to our customers.”

The deal is one of the highest-profile to be signed by Leap and one of the first since iGaming-focused technology investment vehicle FastForward acquired a 41.15 per cent in the supplier.

“We are thrilled to partner up with Pala Interactive and provide our virtual sports through their growing footprint across North America,” Leap Gaming CEO Yariv Lissauer said.

“We believe the time is now right to introduce virtual sports also as a social gaming product and we therefore believe our suite will complement Pala Interactive’s gaming portfolio extremely well,” he explained. “We look forward to a long lasting and prosperous partnership.”

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Another Arrest

Another arrest has been made as some commenters have pointed out on the previous post.

Third arrest in Pala Indian Reservation murder

By City News Service
7:53 AM, Sep 13, 2016

SAN DIEGO -- A third suspect was arrested Tuesday in connection with the shooting death of a man at the Pala Indian Reservation six months ago.

Members of the San Diego County Fugitive Task Force arrested Christopher Cloninger near the La Jolla Indian Reservation in Pauma, sheriff's Lt. Kenn Nelson said.

Two other people were arrested on Sept. 7 in connection with the killing of 44-year-old Bradley Trujillo, Nelson said.

Members of the fugitive task force arrested Tyann Louise Allen, 30, and her boyfriend, 33-year-old Anthony James Boles, at a hotel in Temecula, according to Nelson.

Read Full Article Here-->Third arrest in Pala Indian Reservation murder

Thursday, September 8, 2016

Arrests Made

As many of you are now aware arrests were made with regard to the murder of Bradley Trujillo.

Here are some articles:

Two arrested for Pala killing - One suspect was involved in horrific crash nine years ago

By J. Harry Jones | 4:30 p.m. Sept. 7, 2016

PALA — Two people were arrested Wednesday in connection with the March 2 shooting death of a man on the Pala Indian Reservation, authorities said.

Bradley Trujillo, 44, was found dead inside the garage of a home on Robles Way that was occupied by Anthony Boles and Tyann Louise Allen. Both were arrested at the time. However, charges were not filed and both were released.

Over the next several months homicide detectives and crime analysts worked to develop new leads and collect additional evidence, leading to arrests warrants for Boles and Allen, sheriff’s homicide Lt. Kenn Nelson said.

Wednesday morning members of the San Diego County Fugitive Task Force found Boles and Allen at a hotel in Temecula.

Read Full Article Here-->Two arrested for Pala killing


Woman and Man Arrested in Deadly Shooting of Man at Pala Reservation Home

Tyann Louise Allen, 30, faces a first-degree murder charge in the killing of Bradley Trujillo, 44, while Anthony Boles, 33, faces a count of accessory to the crime

By Monica Garske

A woman and man are now in custody in connection with the killing of a man found shot to death inside a garage of a home on the Pala Indian Reservation, officials confirmed Wednesday.

More than six months ago – on March 2 – Bradley Lynn Trujillo, 44, was found dead from gunshot wounds inside a home's garage in the 1300 block of Robles Way.


Victim:  Bradley Lynn Trujillo, age 44

Suspects:  Anthony James Boles, age 33 & Tyann Louise Allen, age 30

On the evening of March 2, 2016, Bradley Trujillo was found inside the garage of the home located at 1321 Robles Way on the Pala Indian Reservation, dead of apparent gunshot wounds. At that time, the home was occupied by Anthony Boles and Tyann Allen. Detectives from the San Diego Sheriff's Department Homicide Detail responded to the scene. The investigation established probable cause to arrest Boles and Allen for the murder of Trujillo. However, charges were not filed at that time and both Boles and Allen were released from custody.

Over the next several months, Sheriff's Homicide Detectives and members of the Sheriff's Crime Lab worked diligently to develop new leads and to collect and analyze additional evidence. The additional evidence allowed Sheriff's Homicide Detectives to request and receive arrest warrants for both Boles and Allen.

On Wednesday, September 7, the San Diego County Fugitive Task Force located Boles and Allen at a hotel in Temecula. Both were arrested for their outstanding warrants. Boles was booked into the Vista Detention Facility on a single count of being an accessory after the fact. Allen was booked into the Las Colinas Detention Facility on a single count of murder.

Anyone with information about this incident is asked to call the Homicide Detail at (858) 974- 2321/after hours at (858) 565-5200. You can also remain anonymous by calling Crime Stoppers at (888) 580-8477 and be eligible for up to a $1,000 reward for information leading to an arrest. 

Monday, August 22, 2016

Pala Mentioned In National Law Review

There is a long article out titled:

Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde Community v. Jewell and Other Selected Cases: Indian Nations Law Update August natlawreview.com

Here is an excerpt.   Click the link above if you want to read the whole article.

"In Aguayo v. Jewell, 2016 WL 3648465 (9th Cir. 2016), the Pala Band of Mission Indians (Tribe) amended its constitution in 1997 to authorize its Executive Committee to replace its existing Enrollment Ordinance with an ordinance governing “adoption, loss of membership, disenrollment, and future membership.” The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) approved the constitution in 2000. In 2009, the Executive Committee adopted a new enrollment ordinance giving itself the power to “reevaluate” an applicant based on “misrepresented or omitted facts that might have made him/ her ineligible for enrollment,” and remove such members from the rolls. The ordinance permitted an aggrieved person to appeal to the BIA’s regional director but also provided that the regional director could merely make a recommendation and that the Executive Committee would have ultimate authority over enrollment decisions. The Executive Committee determined that the blood quantum of Margarita Britten, a Pala Indian born in 1856, had incorrectly been listed as “full blood” but should have been listed as half- blood. The committee subsequently disenrolled over 150 of her descendants who could not satisfy the Tribe’s 1/16 blood requirement. Many of them appealed to the BIA regional director, but the regional director, and later the Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs (AS-IA), determined that BIA’s role was purely advisory under the Tribe’s constitution."

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

From the “Unknown” to the “Known”

By Anonymous Guest Blogger (AGB)

"Margarita’s blood quantum depends upon the identity and lineage of her father. The evidence on this issue is somewhat conflicting. For instance, a reconstructed version of the original membership roll lists Margarita as a full-blooded Pala Indian, but a copy with pen-and-ink edits changed her designation to one-half Pala Indian. Likewise, some records indicate that Margarita’s father was “unknown,” but available probate testimony from a proceeding in the 1920s suggests that her father was known, and that he was a full-blooded Pala Indian."

This footnote is from the recent Aguayo decision by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. Seems everyone wants to focus on the “UNKOWN” and completely ignore the knowns.

After being forced to research the various families of Pala, San Felipe, Agua Caliente, Puerta La Cruz, Mataguay, San Jose and Los Tules villages, many knowns are now truly known. Even though they are known they are completely ignored when dealing with the facts. 

We now know that Alejandro (Alexander) Barker was a “White” man. This is evidenced by the fact that he was able to vote and record deeds which Indians could not do this at that time. Maria Jesusa Hyde lists Barker as her father and that he was a White Man. This is a known. See Application 1194 of the California Indian Judgment Roll. 

Domingo Moro was a citizen Indian. That is a known. He homesteaded land adjacent to Warner Springs and gave up his rights as an Indian. This is further evidenced by the fact that he did not apply for nor did he receive a land allotment at Pala. Domingo Moro’s Homestead patent number is 25506 and can be viewed on the Bureau of Land Management website. Domingo Moro was not a Warner Ranch Evictee. He had 160 acres of land under his ownership and was either “Homeless”, “Landless” or a “Mission Indian without suitable lands elsewhere.”

We also learned that Nicholasa Lubo was not an Agua Caliente Indian and that she was from Cahuilla. See Application 1241* of the California Indian Judgment Roll. This is also a known fact. The fact that she was married to Domingo Moro made her a “Citizen Indian” as well and she and her children should have never been allotted lands at Pala. She was not a Warner Ranch Evictee because they had their own lands and there was no court order affecting them. The children of Domingo and Nicholasa Moro, Annie, Catherine, and Juan were not Warner Ranch Evictees either and therefore they were ineligible to receive land allotments at Pala. 

Sylverio Nolasquez is the long ignored “KNOWN”. He was a Mexican Indian. See Applications 1256, 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260, 1261 and 1263 of the California Indian Judgment Roll. He was not a Warner Ranch Evictee because he was not an Indian of California. He should have never been allotted land at Pala. 

Now for the big and I mean BIG surprise. Roscinda Nolasquez, see Application 1262 of the California Indian Judgment Roll, the great matriarch of truth and wisdom. The words of Roscinda are gospel and without deception. The words of Roscinda are golden and indisputable. That being said, please take a look at Application 1262 and you will see that she lists her father as Salvador Nolasquez, a Mexican Indian. The information is located on Page 3 at item 15. Now how about that for some real truth? 

It really does make sense since Salvador is listed as being born in 1861 and the next sibling is not born until 1872. It is not difficult to determine that Salvador himself was born in Mexico and that he came to Warner Springs with his father from Mexico. It has to be believable because the great one herself says that her father, Salvador Nolasquez, was a Mexican Indian.  

Another person of interest is Antonio Garra. No one seems to really know where he came from. He declared that he was from San Luis Rey and everyone assumed that he meant San Luis Rey Mission in San Diego County. It is more likely that he was from San Luis Rey, Mexico, and was a Yuma Indian and not Cupeño at all. His descendants always claimed that they were from Yuma. Antonio Garra was probably wrongfully accused, convicted and executed for what is known in history as the Garra Uprising. Yes he did complain about unjust taxes and the seizing of Indian cattle but the record shows that the persons involved in the uprising were from Mataguay and San Felipe. The record shows that there were no participants in the Garra Uprising from Agua Caliente. 

We cannot overlook Remijio Lugo. See Application 1211 of the California Indian Judgment Roll. He states that he was born at Sulphur Springs near Cahuilla. This of course is Cahuilla. He was married to Angelita Barker Lugo. See Application 1206 of the California Indian Judgment Roll. What is interesting is that her sister Mary Barker Calac states that she was from San Ysidro and Cahuilla. See Application 1140 of the California Indian Judgment Roll. Are you confused yet?

It is not that complicated. Remijio Lugo and Angelita Barker were living at Morongo/Malki and were not Warner Ranch Evictees. They should have not been allotted lands at Pala. The Lugos were originally from Puki and Pui and considered Cahuilla. The Lugos were the main participants in the Temecula Massacre. The Lugos were heir to more than 37,000 acres of land which was originally part of the Lugo Ranch near Yucaipa. Juan Antonio squandered away the land and left the Lugos “Homeless”. Even as Homeless Indians, this did not qualify them for re-settlement at Pala. The Lugos went to any Reservation they wanted with the blessing of the United States for a job well done. There is a strong record of favoritism towards the Lugos for their participation in the Temecula Massacre by the United States. 

So how do you sum this entire mess up?

1)  It is not that complicated. The descendants of Domingo Moro have no rights to Pala. 

2)  The descendants of Alejandro Barker need to decrease their Indian blood to match the fact that he was white man. 

3)  Sylverio Nolasquez was a Mexican Indian and his descendants need to decrease their Indian blood accordingly. 

4)  Roscinda Nolasquez, by her own sworn testimony, declares that her father, Salvador Nolasquez was a Mexican Indian. The descendants of Roscinda Nolasquez need to decrease their Indian blood accordingly. Roscinda Nolasquez’s descendants get the double whammy because her grandfather was also a Mexican Indian. That would make Roscinda Nolasquez ¼ Indian of California. Remember that this calculation is based on her testimony and acknowledgement. (Or do her descendants want it both ways now? What do you mean the California Indian Judgment Roll is inaccurate? Really!!!)

5)  Antonio Garra was from Yuma. His descendants should also decrease their degree of Indian blood accordingly.

6)  The Lugos were from Cahuilla and Yucaipa. They were never evicted from Warner Springs. They were living at Morongo/Malki and they should have never been allotted at Pala. 

After we examined all of the California Indian Judgment Roll it was learned that more than half of the applicants from Pala did not list who their parents were or the parents of their parents, in other words, “UNKNOWN”.

All of this means that almost no one from Pala would pass the Robert Smith smell test. He chose to use the 1928 California Indian Judgment Roll to determine the blood degree of Margarita Britten. He did this in violation of the PBMI Constitution which states that lineal descent is determined from heirs of original allottees of Pala. This simple constitutional section forbids Robert Smith from utilizing the 1928 California Indian Judgment Roll in determining eligibility for enrollment in PBMI. 

If you don’t understand what is being said here then here it is in a nutshell. Everything said here does not matter if the PBMI Constitution is followed. It does not matter who Alejandro Barker was or who a Lugo was or who a Nolasquez was. That is the reason the elders adopted those standards so as to protect everyone. 

Can the Genie be put back in the bottle? Yes it can but it is up to the people to do that. If the Genie is not put back in the bottle then future generations will rely upon the records of Robert Smith to disenfranchise, disenroll, humiliate and discredit your future if not present descendants. Robert Smith’s reign of terror will be coming to an end. It will end. Do you feel comfortable with the new standard he created? Is your family safe? No. Your family is not safe. No one knows what power shifts in leadership will occur. It is a gamble for everyone unless we go back to the rules and the intention of the elders to recognize everyone based on the 1895 and 1903 allotment rolls. Anything else is a violation of tribal law. Now that is a real “KNOWN”.

The Robert Smith Enrollment Ordinance must comply with the Constitution. That is tribal law. Tribal law requires that membership shall be determined from the 1895 and 1903 Allotment Rolls. You can look it up. His blatant disregard for the Constitution is grounds for removal from office and he should be. He had several opportunities to make changes to the constitution in cooperation with the people and with the advice of the BIA. He chose to reject “all of the above” and moved forward with his version of the constitution. His version included in his mind the right to determine membership. He is wrong but the people need to tell him he is wrong. It is time to do your homework and understand your own government and its powers. The power belongs to you the people. 

There has to be some humor in all this work. Is this Robert Smith at a Tanty party dressed in drag and just finishing off his personal stash? Is this photo from the vast collection of misdeeds of Robert Smith?

This woman is a Wappo Indian from Northern California. The Wappos were from Sonoma County. Remember that Adolpho Moro was from Sonoma County. Coincidence? I doubt it. There is just too much resemblance. No Warner Ranch Indian here. Indian blood degree should be adjusted accordingly.

“The BIA’s participation in the abuse of the membership at Pala should be investigated and the culpable parties should be prosecuted. They know who they are. We will get the evidence necessary to have them prosecuted. Yes we will. This is not over yet. This will be settled Indian Way and no court or lying BIA agent can protect Robert Smith forever.” Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez you dumb asses. You will learn what it really means. You will become “KNOWN”.

Sunday, July 10, 2016

9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Ruling

US News and World Report - Court rules for government in fight over tribal expulsions

By SUDHIN THANAWALA, Associated Press

The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a decision by the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs not to overrule the Pala Band of Mission Indians' expulsion of more than 150 members. The court said the federal agency reasonably concluded that the San Diego County-based Pala were operating under a tribal constitution that gave the tribe ultimate authority over enrollment decisions.

"In reaching our decision, we recognize with regret that plaintiffs will suffer severe and significant consequences from losing their membership in the Pala Band," Judge Milan Smith wrote for the three-judge panel.

But he went on to say that the federal government does not interfere in tribal enrollment decisions "in the absence of specific authority to do so."

Read More Here-->Court rules for government in fight over tribal expulsions

Friday, July 8, 2016

Vincent Marruffo Received a Civil Infraction From Pala for Attending A Funeral

Vincent Marruffo attended his cousin Johnny Ayala's funeral and was given a Civil Infraction by Pala.  This is just another example in a long list of examples of how the "Honorable" Chairman Robert Smith dominates Pala in an oppressive and degrading manner.

Monday, June 27, 2016

California Online Poker Bill Takes A Step Forward

California Online Poker Bill Passes Assembly Appropriations Vote

California Representative Adam Gray’s Assembly Bill 2863 has passed an important Assembly Appropriations Committee vote today, moving on to consideration by the state’s full Assembly body.

AB 2863’s passage from committee came despite continuing opposition from a hardline, obstructionist group of a half-dozen politically important casino-operating tribal nations, led by the Pechanga and Agua Caliente tribes, along with continuing protests from the Sheldon Adelson-funded Coalition to Stop Internet Gambling.

State of CaliforniaHowever, a much larger coalition of AB 2863’s supporting entities were on hand to speak in support of the bill’s passage, including six other of the state’s prominent, casino-operating tribes — the Rincon Band of Luiseño Indians, the United Auburn Indian Community, the Pala Band of Mission Indians, the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, the Morongo Band of Mission Indians and the Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation.

Read More Here - California Online Poker Bill Passes Assembly Appropriations Vote


Lawmakers Seeking Pound Of Flesh From PokerStars For Entry Into California Online Poker Market

But several members strongly recommended tightening “bad actor” language that would permit, with conditions, the licensing of companies accused of taking U.S. wagers in apparent violation of the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) of 2006.

The committee’s concern about one of the companies – PokerStars, purchased in 2014 by Amaya Gaming – is prompting skepticism the bill will generate the votes needed to get through the legislature. The tax measure will require a two-thirds vote for approval.

Meanwhile, a politically powerful coalition of seven tribes led by the Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians and Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians continues to oppose licensing Amaya/PokerStars, which also threatens passage of the bill.

Read More Here - Lawmakers Seeking Pound Of Flesh From PokerStars For Entry Into California Online Poker Market

Friday, June 17, 2016

The Marruffo Family Continues Its Fight For Rightful Access to Their Own Land

Pala's Executive Committee continues to harass and trample on the rights of the Marruffo Family.  The Marruffo Family have allotted land at Pala and have a right to access their property.  Pala's Executive Committee has abused their land without their permission and continues to trample on the rights of the Marruffo Family.

See the following correspondence and video below:

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

MGM Buys Stake in Borgata

MGM To Acquire Boyd Gaming's 50-Percent Stake In Borgata


Borgata also has the largest online gambling business in the state. It’s one of five online casino operators there. Borgata had $45.7 million in online gaming revenue in 2015, nearly a third of the state’s total. The licensed online gaming sites under the Borgata are Borgatacasino.com, Borgatapoker.com, NJ.Partypoker.com, palacasino.com and palabingousa.com.

In February it was announced that Borgata would migrate from the Party platform to United Kingdom-based GAN, formerly GameAccount Network. The launch of the GAN-Borgata product is expected in the second quarter of this year. Borgata also has a partnership with Pala Interactive, an online gaming company from the Pala Band of Mission Indians in California.

Read More Here:

MGM To Acquire Boyd Gaming's 50-Percent Stake In Borgata

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

The Cupeno Removal - Part 4

Part 4 on the Cupeno Removal by Jeff Smith at the San Diego Reader is out.

Here is a link to the article:

At a certain point, the Cupeño stopped looking back. 10 This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part four of four by Jeff Smith

Here is an excerpt:

During the meal, Inspector Jenkins’s head count totaled 97. Manuella Sibimoat was missing. When a Union reporter asked why the old woman would flee, Isabella Owlinguish said that when she and Manuella were young, they were held prisoners at Pala. “It was a revolting story,” wrote the reporter, “like a tale out of the middle ages.”

After she spoke, Isabella “threw off her shawl and shouted ‘see!’ and showed great calloused marks on her thin shoulders. ‘These we had to keep fresh our memories of Pala mission! What we suffered there how many years ago I cannot say, fifty, sixty, maybe more. Bearfoot could not forget. She would not look again upon that place… Does the white man think it strange that we did not want to come?’”

Full Article:

At a certain point, the Cupeño stopped looking back. 10 This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part four of four by Jeff Smith

Thursday, May 12, 2016

The Cupeno Removal - Part 3

Part 3 of a 4 part series by Jeff Smith at the San Diego Reader is out.  It is titled:

Against the Inevitable - This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part three of four

Here is an excerpt:

On April 19, Cecilio Blacktooth and three other tribesmen rode to San Bernardino to buy horses. “We will never give in,” he told the Los Angeles Herald, “but will perish gladly if the last sight we see is our Agua Caliente.

“Some will scatter to other tribes, but the old men and women would not leave and have begged to be taken above Warner’s Ranch in the mountains…to look down upon the graves of their ancestors.” Pala is “so barren,” he added, “not even rabbits will live there.”

Blacktooth didn’t mention that at least 15 Luiseño Indian families already did. They lived on allotments assigned by the government ten years prior. The relocation would force them to share a reservation with another tribe.

Read the full article at this link:

Against the Inevitable - This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part three of four

Friday, May 6, 2016

Native American Genetic Testing Extremely Problematic

Genetic Testing is effective at determining paternity but is unreliable when it comes to establishing one's "Nativeness", blood quantum, or tribal affiliation.  Depending on what anthropological theory you want to believe many Natives apparently crossed the land bridge from Asia/Siberia.  Some believe Polynesians migrated to South America.  While others contend there were Native Americans here before the apparent Mongolian/Siberian invasion.  Most Anthropologists believe in the "Out of Africa" theory meaning all homo sapiens originated first in Africa and then migrated throughout the rest to the world.

And, if you happen to submit your DNA to 23 and Me for testing you are likely to find out you are not only part African but are also 3% to 5% Neanderthal.

Here is a good article on Native American Genetic testing.  I will post an excerpt but encourage everyone to read the full article.


by Brett Lee Shelton, J.D. and Jonathan Marks, Ph.D.


Tribes Do Not Differ From One Another In Ways That Geneticists Can Detect

Another issue is the widespread belief that genetics can help determine specific tribal affinities of either living or ancient people. This is quite simply false. Neighboring tribes have long-standing, complex relationships involving intermarriage, raiding, adoption, splitting, and joining. These social-historical forces insure that there cannot be any clear-cut genetic variants differentiating all the members of one tribe from those of nearby tribes. At most, slight differences in the proportions of certain genetic variations are identifiable in each group, but those do not permit specific individuals to be assigned to particular groups.


The concept of using genetic tests to prove Native American ancestry is of relatively recent origin, but there are many problems with it. Perhaps foremost of these problems is that to make a genetic test the arbiter of whether someone is Native American is to give up a tribe’s sovereign ability to determine its own membership and relations. But, even taken on their own scientific terms, these tests cannot do much to identify who is and who is not Native American, because they yield many false negatives and false positives. Therefore, they readily misidentify non-Native people as Native, and misidentifying Native people as non-Native, and the positive results they do yield are at best only probabilities. If these were medical diagnostic tests, they would never be approved or adopted.

But the most important argument against this type of testing to establish tribal affiliations is that biology (and genetics) track just part of our tribal inheritance. These DNA tests treat “Native American biology” as though all Indians were essentially the same. But in reality, it is our traditions that make us who we are, not just our biology.



Bitter Fight to Determine Who Is an American Indian Turns to DNA

By Kevin Taylor


A thornier question for Cory, and for Laura Wass of the American Indian Movement, is finding due process for people facing expulsion from several central California tribes that are in casino-induced turmoil. This is a challenge when tribes, citing sovereignty, make arbitrary rulings and provide limited options for appeal. The federal government, despite lawsuits grinding through U.S. District courts, refuses to step in.

So the nice person in the lab coat just used a giant Q-tip to swab some saliva from inside your cheek. Does it go through some shiny, space-age machine that eventually spits out the answer: “Yup. Dude’s Indian” or “Nope. Dude’s lying”?

In a word: No. In a few more words: “Anybody who claims that they can find out if you are an Indian through DNA testing, that’s a fairy tale,” says Mills.

While there are different ways to use DNA to determine ancestry—even as far back as prehistoric times—tribes use a far–more specific, and less-anthropological, type of test. “The only way it’s really used is determining whether or not you are the child of the parent that you claim,” Mills explains.

Read Full Article Here->Bitter Fight to Determine Who Is an American Indian Turns to DNA

See Also:

Tribal Enrollment and Genetic Testing

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Pala Interactive - Still No Poker?

Online Poker Report - GAN Annual Report Expects Real Money Gaming Deal With The Borgata To Begin In Summer 2016


The existence of the relationship with GAN does not absolutely show that the Borgata wants to end the partnership with partypoker now that GVC has taken over. There is no reason why the Borgata can’t add extra brands to its gaming offer.

The industry rumor mill has Pala Interactive listed as a potential online poker provider if partypoker were to exit the market. PalaCasino is live in New Jersey, but despite developing proprietary software, Pala has not yet launched a poker product.

CEO Jim Ryan said that he would like to see the impact of PokerStars before making that decision.
Unless there is a dramatic change in the New Jersey market, such as partypoker exiting, Pala online poker looks unlikely to make an independent entry – the return on investment probably isn’t there.

Read Full Article -->Online Poker Report - GAN Annual Report Expects Real Money Gaming Deal With The Borgata To Begin In Summer 2016

Monday, April 25, 2016

Another Murder At Pala

Thanks to the commenter who provided the news link.

cbs8.com Death under investigation at Pala Reservation

Posted: Apr 25, 2016 6:46 AM PDT
Updated: Apr 25, 2016 12:18 PM PDT

SAN DIEGO (CNS) - A shooting at the Pala Indian Reservation in the North County left a 56-year-old man dead, authorities said Monday.
San Diego County Sheriff's deputies from the Valley Center substation were called to the 11900 block of Ortega Road in a residential area of the reservation shortly after midnight, Sheriff Homicide Sgt. Todd Norton said.
The victim was found shot numerous times as he sat in a vehicle, according to Norton. Paramedics responded and attempted to save the man's life, but he died at the scene, Norton said.
The San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office was called to the scene and will release the man's name after his family is notified. No suspect
information was released.
Detectives asked anyone with information about the shooting to call the Homicide Detail at (858) 974-2321 or after hours at (858) 565-5200. Tipsters can remain anonymous and be eligible for up to a $1,000 reward for information leading to an arrest by calling Crime Stoppers at (888) 580-8477.

cbs8.com Death under investigation at Pala Reservation

Saturday, April 23, 2016

New Jersey Internet Gambling Up 28%

Internet Gambling in New Jersey where Pala Interactive operates is up 28% in the first quarter of 2016.  Per Cap Increase all around for PBMI members coming soon?

Popularity of internet gambling in New Jersey growing, analysts say Read More: Internet gambling in New Jersey grows by 28 percent, analysts say

Figures from the state Division of Gaming Enforcement show an almost 28 percent increase in web gaming, versus the first quarter of last year. Web gambling revenue in the state went from $35.1 million in the first quarter of 2015 to $44.9 million in this year’s first quarter.

Publisher Roger Gros, of Global Gaming Business Magazine says “there is a bright future ahead in ‘I-gaming’ in New Jersey.”

Gros says online gaming is going to continue to grow, it is becoming more popular, people are understanding how it works, and a lot of the glitches that were there early on in terms of payment processing and geo location have been fixed.

Read More Here->Popularity of internet gambling in New Jersey growing, analysts say Read More: Internet gambling in New Jersey grows by 28 percent, analysts say 


PalaBingoUSA.com – New Jersey's first fully dedicated real-money 90 Ball Online Bingo website – has named TV personality, entrepreneur, author and chef Kathy Wakile as its official brand ambassador. Best known for her role on Bravo TV's "The Real Housewives of New Jersey," Wakile said the dynamic sense of camaraderie and community built around the excitement of bingo were among the reasons behind her decision to team with Pala Interactive on the launch of PalaBingoUSA.com.

Wakile recalls a trip to Italy she took with her family. "We traveled to Italy a few years ago and right out in the open air piazza everyone was playing a game similar to bingo, calling out numbers, laughing, having fun and simply interacting and enjoying each other's company. I remember thinking what a great sense of community that was, and PalaBingoUSA.com has created that same type of atmosphere," she said.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Pala Casino RV Park Set To Open

Pala Casino $5.6 million expansion; RV Resort ready to roll May 23

By  K Morrison  April 12, 2016
World Casino News

Pala Casino Spa & Resort’s new $5.6 million 10-acre RV Resort located on Highway 76 next to the hotel casino will be open for business next month as the casino confirmed a May 23 opening date.

The new RV Resort at Pala in northern San Diego County features 100 full-service sites and guests can choose from one of three site sizes, including 77 20’x55′ back in sites, 17 20’x70′ pull-through sites, six 20’x60′ luxury sites with barbeque grills, and 20 sites with 30-50 amp power. The luxury Resort Clubhouse features two spas and a heated swimming pool.

Read More Here->Pala Casino $5.6 million expansion; RV Resort ready to roll May 23

Thursday, April 7, 2016

The Cupeno Removal Part 2

Jeff Smith at the San Diego Reader continues with his 4 part series on the Cupeno Removal.

Here is a link to part 2:

In search of the unwanted, This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part two of four

Here is an excerpt:

On April 5 the San Diego Union ran a headline: “WARNER’S RANCH INDIANS SAY THEY WILL NOT MOVE TO THE NEW RESERVATION; THINK THEY WOULD STARVE.” The Cupeños are almost all united against the move, the story said, and will “scatter to the hills rather than go to Pala to starve.”

Lummis told officials in the Department of the Interior that Pala was the tribe’s second choice for a home.

“Not true!” said Josephine Babbitt, schoolteacher at Kupa for 12 years. “They had no second choice.” Babbitt told the Cupeños that Lummis was a liar. She also pointed out that, while he said the Cupeños would have “a valley all their own,” they must share the reservation with another tribe: 76 Pala Indians already lived there.

Read the full article here-->   In search of the unwanted, This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903, part two of four

Thursday, March 31, 2016

The Cupeno Removal

There is an article in the San Diego Reader about the Cupeno Removal of 1903.

Here is a link and an excerpt:

This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903 The blackest of crimes committed against Warner Ranch Indians.

By Jeff Smith, March 30, 2016

Visitors to the Indian village at Kupa were often struck by the silence. No loud voices, no sudden shouts. Even children played quietly. A stillness spread from the bowl-shaped Valle de San Jose below, past Warner’s Ranch, and up to where Cupeños busied themselves with the tasks of the moment — tasks their people had performed since time for them began.


On May 13, 1901, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the California Supreme Court’s decision: J. Harvey Downey and his stockholders legally owned Agua Caliente — aka Kupa. It did not matter that the Cupeños lived there centuries before the Spanish came. In the original case, Barker vs. Harvey, attorneys for John Downey, J. Harvey’s uncle, argued that no natives were on the site in 1844, when John J. Warner obtained the land grant. And they never filed a claim to the Board of Land Commissioners in 1851.


Courts from San Diego to Washington DC read “vacant and abandoned” to mean no Indians were on the property. But in 1893, Warner said that wasn’t true. Eighty-five years old and gravely ill, Warner gave a deposition at his home in Los Angeles. The southern half of the valley was abandoned, he said, not the northern, which included Agua Caliente/Kupa. He “never heard of them being displaced.” The original grant even stipulated that he could not interfere with roads and other usages,” meaning the native village.

Read the full article at the link below.

This land is mine: The Cupeño removal of 1903 The blackest of crimes committed against Warner Ranch Indians.

Thursday, March 24, 2016

Pala Interactive Making News

Gaming Realms Bingo Content Goes Live with Pala Interactive

Under the terms of the deal, Gaming Realms will supply its recently introduced 90-ball bingo game to Pala’s online bingo brand – PalaBingoUSA. The website is known to be the only one within the New Jersey borders to be offering that type of bingo. Pala Interactive has previously been granted the necessary transactional waiver by the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement for the provision of gambling services within the state.

Pala Interactive is New Jersey’s subsidiary of the Pala Band of Mission Indians, a California-based federally recognized tribe, known to be one of the major providers of gambling options in California. Under the terms of their recently signed agreement, Gaming Realms will deliver its bingo game to Pala Interactive’s online bingo website and will receive a portion of the annual revenue generated by the brand.

Read Full Article Here->Gaming Realms Bingo Content Goes Live with Pala Interactive

More news:

New Jersey Sets New Record For Online Gambling Revenue Despite Poker Decline


Furthermore, Borgata is expected to switch over to a online poker client powered by Pala Interactive sometime in the next quarter. How the platform stacks up against its current client (provided by PartyPoker), may weigh heavily on the operator’s future viability in the marketplace.



Intertain also announced that directors Stan Dunford and Mark Redmond had stepped down immediately. In their stead, current Pala Interactive CEO and former Bwin.party co-CEO Jim Ryan has been appointed an independent director, while current Intertain board member David Danziger has been appointed chairman.

Pala Interactive in New Jersey-first with bingo launch

Monday, March 14, 2016

No Shortage of Funds

Union Tribune - Housing projects continue slow march forward


Perhaps sooner to come before the county will be the Warner Ranch project, a 780-home development proposed for 513 acres just north of state Route 76 on private land less than a half mile west of the Pala Resort & Casino.

The neighboring Pala Band of Mission Indians, which has no shortage of funds, says it will oppose Warner Ranch for many reasons including water and traffic.

Read Full Article Here - Union Tribune - Housing projects continue slow march forward

Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Pala Murder Case Status Update

villagenews.com UPDATE: Court proceedings begin in case relating to Pala man’s death

The Fallbrook/Bonsall Village News

By Debbie Ramsey on March 7, 2016

VISTA – One of two North County residents who reported finding a stranger dead in the garage of their home last week pleaded not guilty today, Mon., March 7 to being a felon in possession of a firearm.

Anthony James Boles, 32, faces up to three years in prison if convicted of the gun offense. He was ordered held on $200,000 bail.

Boles and Tyann Louise Allen, 33, were arrested last Thursday, March 3, at the Valley Center Sheriff’s Substation, where they had voluntarily gone to be questioned about the shooting death of 44-year-old Bradley Trujillo Jr., whom they claimed not to have known.

Allen has not been charged with any crime in the case and is expected to be released from jail.

On Wednesday evening, Allen and Boles reported finding Trujillo’s body upon returning to their residence on Robles Way in Pala following a dinner outing, sheriff’s Lt. Dan Brislin said.

The victim died of multiple gunshot wounds, according to the county Medical Examiner’s Office, which ruled his death a homicide.

Authorities have disclosed no suspected motive for the slaying. Allen’s and Boles’ assertions that they were not acquainted with Trujillo remain under investigation, the lieutenant said.

Detectives said they found no evidence of forced entry at the home.

Boles is scheduled to be back in court March 15 for a readiness conference. A preliminary hearing is set for March 17.

Read More Here-->villagenews.com UPDATE: Court proceedings begin in case relating to Pala man’s death

Saturday, March 5, 2016

Murder On The Pala Reservation Makes The News

As most of you know there was a murder on the Pala Reservation.  I have been waiting for more verifiable facts before posting anything.  The name has not been officially released nor has any motive been disclosed.  Of course rumor and speculation abound in the comments sections.

However, an anonymous commenter has now suggested that somehow I am being paid by Robert Smith not to mention the murder.  So I will post links to the news articles for people to read or not read, your choice.   The facts as they are known are described in the articles.  Those facts are a 44 year old male was found murdered.  An investigation is on-going but enough evidence has been garnered to arrest 32-year-old Anthony James Boles Sr. and 30-year-old Tyann Louise Allen for probable cause.  The motive is still under investigation.  The San Diego Sheriff homicide division is investigating.

The investigation needs to play out.  In the United States one is presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.

From the villagenews.com:

"Anyone with information about this incident is asked to call the Homicide Detail at (858) 974- 2321/after hours at (858) 565-5200. You can also remain anonymous by calling Crime Stoppers at (888) 580-8477 and be eligible for up to a $1,000 reward for information leading to an arrest."

villagenews.com Man and woman arrested for murder a Pala man

nbcsandiego.com - Dead Man Found at Pala Indian Reservation in Suspected Homicide

patch.com - UPDATED: Arrests Made in Pala Indian Reservation Homicide

osidenews.com - Two Arrested for Murder on Pala Reservation

Views expressed in the comments section are not mine nor are they endorsed by me.  I do not endorse or condone any views expressed by anonymous commenters or otherwise.  Please do not conflate a blog post with blog comments.  They are two different things.

Wednesday, March 2, 2016

NIGC Derelict In Its Fiduciary Responsibility to Individual American Indians

Good article in Indian Country Today.  Here are some excerpts.

h/t originalpechanga.com

Indian Country Today - NIGC Must Deter Gaming Per Capita Misuse

By Gabriel S. Galanda 3/1/16

It is easy to blame the Congress, the BIA,, and federal courts for allowing mass tribal disenrollment to flourish. They are all complicit.

But behind the scenes another federal entity plays a key role, especially in the increasing number of disenrollments tied to gaming per capitas: the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC).

Over the last five years, the NIGC has shied away from regulating gaming per capita distributions, and by doing so emboldened a growing number of tribal politicians to disenroll their kin to increase income for those politicians’ allies.
More to the point, while the NIGC does not have authority over any tribe’s “enrollment decisions,” the agency does possess the statutory power—and indeed is mandated—to intercede in disenrollment-related gaming per capita misuse. 25 U.S.C. § 2702(2); 25 C.F.R. § 290.14(b). The Commission can and should regulate the money. Prior NIGC Chairmen understood that. The current Commission demurs.
The NIGC’s deference to an intra-tribal system of check and balance in that context, is derelict. So is the Commission when it comes to the trust responsibility it owes to every single enrolled member of gaming tribes.

By the admission of former NIGC Chairman Harold Monteau, the NIGC owes a “direct trust (fiduciary) responsibility to American Indians”—meaning not merely to tribal governments, but to tribal members, including those who face disenrollment.  (emph. added)

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Pala Online Poker In The News

Pala Interactive and Online Poker in California in the news.

Pala Band of Mission Indians Continues to Support Assemblyman Gray's AB 2863 Internet Poker Legislation

pokernews.com - Nevada, New Jersey Welcome Former Ultimate Bet Brass

Borgata, which uses bwin.party as its online poker operator in New Jersey, is making the switch to Pala Interactive, Martyn Hannah of eGR North America reported — note the linked article is behind a paywall. Pala's Chief Executive Officer is Jim Ryan, who also served as CEO of UB's parent company, Exscapa. The switch will reportedly be made "by the end of the second quarter."

Borgata operates the leading online poker room in New Jersey, totaling more than $31 million in revenue since launch and leading second-place Caesar's in each calendar month of 2015.

As such, bwin.party reps are apparently not conceding the lucrative Borgata contract. Hannah quoted one rep as saying there has been "no change" in the company's relationship with Borgata as parent company GVC Holdings awaits licensing in the state. The popular casino has used bwin.party as its online poker provider since launching.

Ryan claims to have left his role as CEO in 2006, before the infamous superuser scandal at UB broke, at which point he said he was acting as merely a court-appointed inspector.
Read Full Article Here -->Nevada, New Jersey Welcome Former Ultimate Bet Brass

PokerFuse - GAN Deal Raises Doubts over Borgata/Partypoker Partnership

The Borgata and its free-play online casino partner GAN have extended their deal to cover real-money online gaming. The deal has led to suggestions that the Borgata/Partypoker partnership in New Jersey may be coming to an end.

GAN will power the online casino platform with Pala Interactive providing online poker, according to a report in eGaming Review.

Read Full Article Here-->PokerFuse - GAN Deal Raises Doubts over Borgata/Partypoker Partnership

parttimepoker.com - New Jersey DGE January 2016 Gaming Results

The Borgata and Party Poker including Pala Entertainment combination continued as the leading revenue producing I-Gaming site(s) in New Jersey with a 31.2% share (First in poker and casino games). Caesar’s Interactive (CIE) held second place with 22.0% (Second in poker, fourth in casino games).

Read Full Article Here-->parttimepoker.com - New Jersey DGE January 2016 Gaming Results

Thursday, February 18, 2016

$80 Million Dollars Stolen

It's been 4 years since Pala's Executive Committee committed mass disenrollments.  162 people had their lives turned upside down along with their families.  Over the 4 year period Pala's Executive committee has stolen $80 million dollars from the disenrolled.

Where did it go?  Did PBMI members enjoy nice per capita increases?

Millions of dollars were invested in Pala Interactive which engages in online gaming in New Jersey.  Are PBMI members getting nice per capita checks from this venture?

What happened to the minor trust funds?

Everything just vanished into the black hole that is Theresa Nieto's accounting system.

Who benefited from the mass disenrollments at Pala?  It doesn't seem PBMI members enjoyed any benefit from it.  But it sure gave Pala's Executive Committee extra money to play with.

Meanwhile Private Jets, box seats, fancy dinners, new vehicles, and fancy golf carries on. Oh, and an RV Park.

Sunday, February 14, 2016

The Daughter of Pala Chairman Robert Smith Arrested

Victoria Smith along with Cory Allen Jr and Kalice Magee we arrested on multiple charges.

You can look up information at http://www.sdsheriff.net

Go to resources and look under who's in jail.  Here is a link:   San Diego Sheriff Who's In Jail

Enter their names.

Here is a screen shot:

Thursday, January 28, 2016

From Where to From There

How many generations need to pass before someone can claim to be instead of from where but to from there?

I wonder about the 3rd generation Englishman living in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1690 making the claim that he is "from there" while standing next to a member of the Wampanoag Nation.  Was he really from there or was he from England?

Picture the Pala Valley prior to European Contact.  Who livered there?  There were indigenous people living all along what is now called the San Luis Rey River.  These people are now referred to as the Luiseño.  But that's not what they called themselves until the Spanish came.

The Spanish put all the Indians living along what they called the San Luis Rey River and into the Temecula Valley under the jurisdiction of the San Luis Rey Mission.  They called them Luiseño.  But that's not what they called themselves.

Today the Luiseño Nation is spread among several bands throughout Southern California.  There are 6 Federally Recognized Bands:  The La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians, The Pala Band of Luiseño Indians, The Pauma Band of Luiseño Indians, The Pechanga Band of Luiseño Indians, The Rincon Band of Luiseño Indians, and The Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians.

The territories we refer to today as California, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico were under Spanish control until Mexican Independence in 1820.  After which the territories came under Mexican Rule.  The United States fought a war against Mexico and acquired the territories under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed in 1848.

The United States all of a sudden found themselves having to administer to all the various tribes in California.  In Northern California this was not so bad for the U.S. Government as many of the tribes were simply slaughtered.  The people living there at the time did not need pesky Indians standing between them and their gold.  Southern California was a bit more complicated.

In Southern California many of the various tribes played an integral part of the economy.  They often worked as farm hands and helped raise cattle.  The owners of the large Ranchos around California often employed the Natives in one fashion or another and relied heavily on their labor.  No doubt they were overworked and underpaid which lead to them being integral to the economy.

In 1851 the U.S. Government signed treaties with the various tribes in Southern California.  In 1875 a reservation was established at Pala for the Luiseño living there.  About 40 miles east of Pala the Cupeno were living at their village of Kupa also known as Warner's Hot Springs aka Agua Caliente in Rancho Valle de San Jose (Warner's Ranch).  The Cupeno should have obtained title to their land under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo but the U.S. Government never informed them they only had one year to make this claim.

Instead The Cupeno had to fight for their inherent right to live on their ancestral homeland.  Juan Jose Warner was given title to the land in 1844.  After the Mexican American War Juan Jose had to refile his claim to the land as all land owners had to do at the time.  Eventually former California Governor Downey ended up with title to the land and started eviction procedures against the Cupeno in 1892.  Downey died and the new owners continued on with the eviction procedures.

The case went all the way to the Supreme Court where it was ordered that the Cupeno be removed from Warner's Hot Springs.  Suitable land was to be bought for the Cupeno to live on.  But the Cupeno at the time felt no land could compare to their home.  The original plan was to force the Cupeno on to land purchased at Monserrate Ranch near Fallbrook.  The Sequoya League told Congress there was no water at Monserrate.  So the search began for more suitable land.

Eventually the U.S. Government settled on land adjacent to the existing Pala Luiseño Reservation.  In 1903 the forced removal of the indigenous populations living at and around Warner's Hot Springs began.  There were several Indian villages in the Rancho Valle de San Jose besides the Cupeno.  These other villages were Luiseño at Puerta la Cruz and Puerta Chiquita, and the Iipai (Digueno) villages of Mataguay, San José, and San Felipe.  The Cupeno resided at their main village at Kupa.

In May of 1903 the Cupeno were forced off their ancestral land and on to land at Pala along with the other villages except San Felipe.  In September of 1903 the San Felipe who had their own separate court case to retain title to their land, lost their battle, and were also forced on to Pala.  At the same time other Mission Indians showed up, namely Cahuilla, as the land at Pala was also purchased for landless or homeless Indians.

So who lives at Pala?  A mix of various tribes including the Cupeno, Luiseño, Iipai, Cahuilla, and Yaqui.  Who is from there?  Old Pala Luiseño are from there.  Everyone else was forced there.  How many generations need to pass before everyone else becomes from there?  Some people apparently think they are more from there than others even though none of them are really from there to begin with.  How do we get to from where to from there?